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宋志平:企業的創新與轉型
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時間: 2016-12-06
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  DANGQIAN,SUIZHUDAZHONGCHUANGYE、WANZHONGCHUANGXINHUODONGDEPENGBOFAZHAN,WOGUOZHENGYOUGUANLIXINGJINGJIXIANGCHUANGXINXINGJINGJIZHUANBIAN,ZHENGGESHEHUIYEXIANGZHUCHUANGXINXINGSHEHUIYANJIN。ZAIZHEGEGUOCHENGZHONG,QIYEDECHUANGXINYUZHUANXINGSHICHUANGXINXINGJINGJIHECHUANGXINXINGSHEHUIDEYUANDONGLI。YINCIRENZHENFENXIQIYECHUANGXINYUZHUANXINGDEBEIJING、YANJIUQIYECHUANGXINLILUNHECHUANGXINMOSHIYIJIQIYEZHUANXINGDEFANGSHIJIUZHIGUANZHONGYAO。

企業創新與轉型的背景

  QIYEDECHUANGXINYUZHUANXING,JIYUJINGJIFAZHANDEJIEDUANYOUGUAN,YEHEJISHUDEFAZHANJIEDUANYOUGUAN。MUQIANYOUSIZHONGYINSUTUIDONGZHUQIYEDECHUANGXINYUZHUANXING,ZHEJIUSHIJINGJIJINRUXINCHANGTAI、HULIANWANGJISHUDEPUJI、GUOJIHUAJINCHENGHERENLEIYINGDUIQIHOUBIANHUA。

  JINGJIXINCHANGTAIGAOSUWOMEN,WOGUOJINGJIYIJINGGAOBIELENEIZHONGKAODICHENGBENYAOSUHETOUZILADONGDEGAOZENGCHANGSHIDAI,ZHUANERJINRUYIGECHANGQIDEZHONGGAOSUZENGCHANGDESHIDAI。ZHEGESHIDAIYOULIANGGETEZHENG,JIUSHIJISHUMAIXIANGZHONGGAODUAN、ZENGCHANGBAOCHIZHONGGAOSU。ERJISHUMAIXIANGZHONGGAODUANZESHIZENGCHANGBAOCHIZHONGGAOSUDEJICHUHEQIANTI。

  YIHULIANWANGWEIDAIBIAODEDASHUJU、YUNJISUANHEZHINENGHUA,JIDADIYANSHENLERENLEIDEZHIHUI,CONGGENBENSHANGGAIBIANLEWOMENDECHUANTONGRENZHIFANGSHIHESHENGCHANFANGSHI。YOUQISHIJIQIRENDEGUANGFANSHIYONG,KUAISUTIGAOLEQIYEDESHENGCHANXIAOLV,WURENHUAGONGCHANGSHIDAIZHENGZAILAILIN。

  JINGUANSHIJIEMUQIANZHENGZAOYUXIFANGBUFENFADAGUOJIADEMAOYIBAOHUZHUYIHEQUQUANQIUHUADENILIU,DANQUANQIUHUADELANGCHAORENGSHIBUKEDANG。QUANQIUHUAGUOCHENGGEIGEGEGUOJIADAILAIDUOYINGHEGONGYINGYICHENGWEIDAJIADEGONGSHI,QUANQIUHUADEHEXINZHIYIJIUSHIJISHUDEQUANQIUHUA,RENHEJISHUDOUWUFACHANGQILONGDUAN,ZHEYECUJINLEGELEIJISHUDEKUAISUFAZHAN。

  MIANDUIDIQIUDAQIWENDUDESHENGGAO,RENLEIYIXINGCHENGGONGSHI,BIXUBADIQIUDEDAQIWENDUSHENGGAOCONG1750NIANGONGYEGEMINGSHIDAIDAOBENSHIJIMOKONGZHIZAIBUDECHAOGUO2DU。ZHEYIWEIZHUDAO2050NIANWOMENBIXUQUDI50%~70%DEHUASHINENGYUAN,ZAIBENSHIJIMOBIXUQUANMIANQUDIHUASHINENGYUAN,ZHEBUJINHUIDAILAIYICHANGNENGYUANGEMING,YEHUISHENKEGAIBIANWOMENDESHENGCHANHESHENGHUOFANGSHI。

  YISHANGZHESIZHONGYINSUHUODANYIHUOZONGHEDIYINGXIANGZHUWOMENDESHENGCHANHUODONG,QIYEBIXUYONGCHUANGXINHEZHUANXINGLAISHIYINGZHEXIEHUANJINGDEBIANHUA,RENHEXINGDONGCHIHUANDEQIYEDOUHUIBEIWUQINGDITAOTAI。

幾種主要的創新觀點

  RENLEIDUICHUANGXINDERENSHIKEYIZHUISUDAOSHANGGESHIJICHU,XIONGBITE1912NIANCHUBANDE《JINGJIFAZHANLILUN》DIYICITICHULECHUANGXINDEGAINIAN。TARENWEICHUANGXINSHISHENGCHANYAOSUDEXINZUHE,ZIBENSHICUJINCHUANGXINDEGANGGAN,QIYEJIASHICHUANGXINDELINGHUN。TAYINERZUOCHUJIELUN,ZHONGFUDESHENGCHANHUODONGZHIDAILAIJINGJIDEZENGCHANG,ERCHUANGXINHUODONGCAIHUIDAILAIJINGJIDEFAZHAN。

  1985NIAN,ZHUMINGDEGUANLIXUEJIADELUKECHUBANLE《CHUANGXINYUQIYEJIAJINGSHEN》,DIYICITICHUCHUANGXINJINGJIHEQIYEJIASHEHUIDEGAINIAN,TARENWEIRANGMEIGUOZAI1965~1985NIANJIANMIANSHOUKANGDELAJIYEFUDAZHOUQISHUAITUIZHIKUDEYUANYINQIAQIASHIMEIGUODAGUIMODEQIYECHUANGXIN。TARENWEICHUANGXINSHIKEYIXUEXIDE,YOUMUDECHUANGXINKEYIJIANSHAOFENGXIAN,CHUANGXINBUZHIKAOGAOKEJI,ZHONGKEJI、DIKEJISHENZHILINGKEJIYEKEYICHUANGXIN,JINERTICHULESHANGYEMOSHIDECHUANGXIN,ZHICHUZAIHAODECHUANGXINYEXUYAOYOULIANGHAODEGUANLIPEIHE。TAZUIHOUTICHUZHONGGAO,CHUANGXINKEYIJIANSHAOSHEHUIDONGDANGHEGAOFULISHEHUIDAILAIDEKUNJU。

  MEIGUOHAFOSHANGXUEYUANJIAOSHOUKELISITINGZEZAITA1997NIANCHUBANDE《CHUANGXINDELIANGNAN》ZHONGTICHULEZHUMINGDEDIANFUXINGCHUANGXINDEGUANDIAN。TARENWEIQIYEYIWEIDICHENZUIYUGUANLIERHUSHICHUANGXINJIANGDAOZHISHUAIBAI,ZHICHUBUSHAOQIYEZHIZHUZHONGCHIXUXINGCHUANGXIN,YOUYUHEDIANFUXINGCHUANGXINDEXINJISHUSHIZHIJIAOBEIERDAOXIA,JIANYIQIYEZAIJINXINGCHUANTONGYEWUCHIXUXINGCHUANGXINDETONGSHIYEYING“LINGQILUZAO”KAIZHANDIANFUXINGCHUANGXIN,YIFANGBUCE。

  NUOBEIERJIANGHUODEZHEFEIERPUSIZAI2013NIANCHUBANDE《DAFANRONG》ZHONGYOUTADUTEDEJIANJIE。TAYOULIANGGEHEXINGUANDIAN:YISHICHUANGXINHEWENHUAYOUGUAN,HEZHIDUWUGUAN。ERSHICHUANGXINZHILAIYUANYUCAOGENCHUANGXIN,HEDAQIYEWUGUAN。FEIERPUSIGUANYUDAQIYEBUCHUANGXINDEGUANDIANHEDELUKEZAOXIANDEKANFAYOUCHURU,DELUKERENWEISHUODAQIYEBUCHUANGXINSHICUOWUDE,BINGLIEJUMEIGUOQIANGSHENG、3MDENGDAGONGSICHIXUCHUANGXINFAZHANZUOWEIDAQIYECHUANGXINDELIZI。

  QISHIYOUGUANCHUANGXINDEGUANDIANHENDUO,YISHANGZHISHIBAJIZHONGZHUYAODEGUANDIANJINXINGLEJIANDANDEMIAOSHU,TOUGUOZHEXIEMIAOSHU,WOMENKEYIGAIKUOCHUCHUANGXINDEYIXIEJIBENGUANDIAN:CHUANGXINSHISHENGCHANYAOSUDEXINZUHE,ZHIYOUCHUANGXINCAINENGDAILAIJINGJIDEFAZHAN,CHUANGXINKEYISHIJISHUCHUANGXINYEKEYISHISHANGYEMOSHIDECHUANGXIN,YAOZHONGSHIDIANFUXINGCHUANGXIN,CHUANGXINYILAIYUCHUANGXINWENHUA,QIYEJIASHICHUANGXINDELINGHUN,CHUANGXINJINGJIHEQIYEJIASHEHUIKEWEISHEHUIDAILAICHIXUFANRONG,CHUANGXINJIYAOKAOWANZHONGCHUANGXINYEYAOKAODAQIYECHUANGXIN。

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